Henry David Thoreau. He is considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. Douglas Miller, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, "Goethe und Carl August – Freundschaft und Politik", "The auto-biography of Goethe. Followers of the twentieth century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of Faust are still performed. Trivia questions with answers. The elephant's skull that led Goethe to this discovery, and was subsequently named the Goethe Elephant, still exists and is displayed in the Ottoneum in Kassel, Germany. The child of an imperial councilor, Goethe had a thoroughly classical education before entering Leipzig University in 1765. He is considered one of the greatest literary figures of his age, and not only. But if you treat him as if he were what he … Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist. He continued, "Pederasty is as old as humanity itself, and one can therefore say, that it resides in nature, even if it proceeds against nature....What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price. Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77). Although the accuracy of Goethe's observations does not admit a great deal of criticism, his aesthetic approach did not lend itself to the demands of analytic and mathematical analysis used ubiquitously in modern Science. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Quotes. Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Spinoza are well known and documented in the history of Western thought. During his Italian journey, Goethe formulated a theory of plant metamorphosis in which the archetypal form of the plant is to be found in the leaf – he writes, "from top to bottom a plant is all leaf, united so inseparably with the future bud that one cannot be imagined without the other". Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: "Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?" Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. ", Mendelssohn was invited to meet Goethe on several later occasions, and set a number of Goethe's poems to music. , In Victorian England, Goethe exerted a profound influence on George Eliot, whose partner George Henry Lewes wrote a Life of Goethe. Another bout of illness then brought him apparently near death, and in the aftermath he underwent a brief conversion from freethinking to evangelical Christianity.  He wrote several works on morphology, and colour theory. His focus on morphology and what was later called homology influenced 19th century naturalists, although his ideas of transformation were about the continuous metamorphosis of living things and did not relate to contemporary ideas of "transformisme" or transmutation of species. Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. , In 1810, Goethe published his Theory of Colours, which he considered his most important work. Homology, or as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire called it "analogie", was used by Charles Darwin as strong evidence of common descent and of laws of variation. Quotations by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German Poet, Born August 28, 1749. Goethe's secretary Riemer reports: 'Although already undressed and wearing only his wide nightgown... he descended the stairs towards them and inquired what they wanted from him.... His dignified figure, commanding respect, and his spiritual mien seemed to impress even them.' His father had made a similar journey during his own youth, and his example was a major motivating factor for Goethe to make the trip. , Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". It measures approximately 1 7/8" x 2 3/4", and is paperstock. His Faust has been called one of the greatest dramatic works of modern European literature. His Faust, though eminently stageworthy when suitably edited, is also Europe’s greatest long poem since John Milton’s Paradise Lost, if not since Dante’s The Divine Comedy. 60, 1832)..  He was also a pantheist, like some other prominent Spinozists such as Flaubert and Albert Einstein. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Friendship with Schiller (1794–1805): The friendship with Schiller began a new period in Goethe’s life, in some ways one of the happiest and, from a literary point of view, one of the most productive, though not all that was produced was of the highest quality. Best Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Quotes Updates? , Goethe also popularized the Goethe barometer using a principle established by Torricelli. Again during the Siege of Mainz, he assisted Carl August as a military observer. Steiner elaborated on that in the books The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception and Goethe's World View, in which he characterizes intuition as the instrument by which one grasps Goethe's biological archetype—The Typus. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. He also journeyed to Sicily during this time, and wrote intriguingly that "To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe The Sorrows of Young Werther is a loosely autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774.  In the Kurschner edition of Goethe's works, the science editor, Rudolf Steiner, presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological.  According to Nietzsche, Goethe had "a kind of almost joyous and trusting fatalism" that has "faith that only in the totality everything redeems itself and appears good and justified. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house (today the Goethe House) in Frankfurt, then an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1779, Goethe took on the War Commission of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, in addition to the Mines and Highways commissions. In 1806, Goethe was living in Weimar with his mistress Christiane Vulpius, the sister of Christian A. Vulpius, and their son Julius August Walther [de]. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, înnobilat în anul 1782 (n.28 august 1749, Frankfurt am Main – d. 22 martie 1832, Weimar) a fost un poet german, ilustru gânditor și om de știință, una dintre cele mai de seamă personalități ale culturii universale. His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. Goethe's diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction Italian Journey. During the course of his trip Goethe met and befriended the artists Angelica Kauffman and Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, as well as encountering such notable characters as Lady Hamilton and Alessandro Cagliostro (see Affair of the Diamond Necklace). , In 1776, Goethe formed a close relationship to Charlotte von Stein, an older, married woman. Enjoy the best Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Quotes at BrainyQuote.  He said in Scientific Studies: We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. On 14 October 1772 Goethe held a gathering in his parental home in honour of the first German "Shakespeare Day". If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well". In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared Faust Part One, Elective Affinities, the West-Eastern Diwan (a collection of poems in the Persian style, influenced by the work of Hafez), his autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From My Life: Poetry and Truth) which covers his early life and ends with his departure for Weimar, his Italian Journey, and a series of treatises on art. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. Johann reflected, "There is nothing more charming to see than a mother with her child in her arms, and there is nothing more venerable than a mother among a number of her children. But it was not to last long. Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe was a German poet, playwright, novelist, statesman, scientist, theatre director, and amateur artist. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, (born August 28, 1749, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died March 22, 1832, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist, considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, od roku 1782 von Goethe (28. srpna 1749 Frankfurt nad Mohanem – 22. března 1832 Výmar, Sasko-výmarské vévodství), byl německý básník, prozaik, dramatik a politik.. Narodil se ve svobodném říšském městě Frankfurtu nad Mohanem jako syn velmi zámožné rodiny. In 1765, Goethe left home to study law, as his father wished, but due to his illness (probably tuberculosis), he returned home without a degree. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, and science. It was while reciting a certain verse that he was struck with the epiphany that would lead to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current. , In a conversation on April 7, 1830 Goethe stated that pederasty is an "aberration" that easily leads to "animal, roughly material" behavior. , A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence in Weimar in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). ", After 1793, Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. Goethe became a literary celebrity after the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther. On a trip to the village Sessenheim, Goethe fell in love with Friederike Brion, in October 1770, but, after ten months, terminated the relationship in August 1771. Although in his academic work he had expressed the ambition to make jurisprudence progressively more humane, his inexperience led him to proceed too vigorously in his first cases, and he was reprimanded and lost further ones. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist. Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. , Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot, whose work he translated and studied. And, between ourselves, I never hated the French, although I thanked God when we were rid of them. If an ever busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history, mythology and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I readily fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, and there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. This is pictured, somewhat satirically, in George Eliot's Middlemarch. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels ever written,[c] while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name (along with Plato, Emanuel Swedenborg, Montaigne, Napoleon, and Shakespeare). The intimate bond with von Stein lasted for ten years, after which Goethe abruptly left for Italy without giving his companion any notice. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Elective Affinities Culture One ought every day at least, to hear a little song, read a good poem, see a fine picture, and, if it were possible, to speak a few reasonable words. , Goethe's botanical theories were partly based on his gardening in Weimar. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. The Lover’s Caprice), begun in 1767. ), In 1775, Goethe was invited, on the strength of his fame as the author of The Sorrows of Young Werther, to the court of Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, who would become Grand Duke in 1815. They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. In 1821 Goethe's friend Carl Friedrich Zelter introduced him to the 12-year-old Felix Mendelssohn. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe became a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena.  Matthew Arnold found in Goethe the "Physician of the Iron Age" and "the clearest, the largest, the most helpful thinker of modern times" with a "large, liberal view of life. Skip to main content. , Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. The outer shape of the work's plot is widely taken over from what Goethe experienced during his Wetzlar time with Charlotte Buff (1753–1828) and her fiancé, Johann Christian Kestner (1741–1800), as well as from the suicide of the author's friend Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem (1747–1772); in it, Goethe made a desperate passion of what was in reality a hearty and relaxed friendship. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer, pictorial artist, biologist, theoretical physicist, and polymath. said Zelter. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is perhaps best known for The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), the first novel of the Sturm und Drang movement, and for Faust (Part I, 1808; Part II, 1832), a play about a man who sells his soul to the Devil that is sometimes considered Germany’s greatest contribution to world literature. Although his literary work has attracted the greatest amount of interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science.  Goethe's unorthodox religious beliefs led him to be called "the great heathen" and provoked distrust among the authorities of his time, who opposed the creation of a Goethe monument on account of his offensive religious creed. Vol. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. He was against this reading of poetry. The first part was published in 1808 and created a sensation.  He adored Caritas Meixner (1750–1773), a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would later marry the merchant G. F. His emotional state became hectic, and his health gave way—he may have suffered an attack of tuberculosis—and in September 1768 he returned home to Frankfurt without a degree. In May 1772 he once more began the practice of law at Wetzlar.  Goethe sympathized with the American Revolution and later wrote a poem in which he declared "America, you're better off than our continent, the old. (28.elokuuta 1749 Frankfurt am Main – 22. maaliskuuta 1832 Weimar) oli saksalainen yleisnero: runoilija, romaanikirjailija, näytelmäkirjailija, humanisti, tutkija, taidemaalari ja kymmenen vuoden ajan myös Weimarin valtion pääministeri.Goethea pidetään yleisesti saksankielisen kaunokirjallisuuden vaikutusvaltaisimpana hahmona. The two became close friends, and crucially to Goethe's intellectual development, Herder kindled his interest in Shakespeare, Ossian and in the notion of Volkspoesie (folk poetry). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe Quiz. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Civilization 6 (VI) Wiki All During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics.  Goethe was ennobled in 1782 (this being indicated by the "von" in his name). Faust is considered by many to be Goethe's magnum opus and the greatest work of German literature.. Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77), for whom he felt an intense affection of whose potentially incestuous nature he seems to have been aware. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy. He writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, and the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, and then of the 'Aeneid' and Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'. Goethe outlines his method in the essay The experiment as mediator between subject and object (1772). The first production of Richard Wagner's opera Lohengrin took place in Weimar in 1850. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. The mighty brow seemed yet to harbour thoughts. Goethe was, however, the first to systematically study the physiological effects of colour, and his observations on the effect of opposed colours led him to a symmetric arrangement of his colour wheel, "for the colours diametrically opposed to each other ... are those which reciprocally evoke each other in the eye. Goethe was also a cultural force.  Although often requested to write poems arousing nationalist passions, Goethe would always decline. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative. 'Goethe: The Man and His Character'. Late at night they burst into his bedroom with drawn bayonets. , To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the conception of Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years (the continuation of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship), the idyll of Hermann and Dorothea, the Roman Elegies and the verse drama The Natural Daughter. The restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. In April 1770, Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies at the University of Strasbourg. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. While in Southern Italy and Sicily, Goethe encountered, for the first time genuine Greek (as opposed to Roman) architecture, and was quite startled by its relative simplicity. By 1820, Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. Goethe could not subsist on being one of the editors of a literary periodical (published by Schlosser and Merck). George Henry Lewes celebrated Goethe's revolutionary understanding of the organism. But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own. Faust: Parts I & II. Reluctantly and with some delay, Goethe followed his father’s prescription, although he did not complete the final stages until some years after his father’s death. For other uses, see, 18th/19th-century German writer, artist, and politician, In 1998, both of these sites, together with nine others, were designated a, Catharina was the daughter of Johann Wolfgang Textor, sheriff (. The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane. This card is in approximately VG/EX condition. Eckermann closes his famous work, Conversations with Goethe, with this passage: The morning after Goethe's death, a deep desire seized me to look once again upon his earthly garment. His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler, and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. Reading Goethe. Another emotional factor in the poet’s childhood that may have affected his later development was a love-hate relationship with a younger brother, who died in 1759 at age six: Goethe’s later relationships with literary contemporaries were ambiguous, though he nonetheless described them as “brothers,” and he was repelled by literary and artistic representations of death. "And yet you heard Mozart in his seventh year at Frankfurt?"  While not the only one in his time to question the prevailing view that this bone did not exist in humans, Goethe, who believed ancient anatomists had known about this bone, was the first to prove its existence in all mammals. Goethe was a Freemason, joining the lodge Amalia in Weimar in 1780, and frequently alluded to Masonic themes of universal brotherhood in his work, he was also attracted to the Bavarian Illuminati a secret society founded on 1 May 1776. The work subsequently inspired operas and oratorios by Schumann, Berlioz, Gounod, Boito, Busoni, and Schnittke as well as symphonic works by Liszt, Wagner, and Mahler. Goethe's original draft of a Faust play, which probably dates from 1773–74, and is now known as the Urfaust, was also published after his death.. This collaborative friendship lasted until Schiller's death in 1805. " Staël's portrayal helped elevate Goethe over his more famous German contemporaries and transformed him into a European cultural hero. This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. 2. edition. In 1823, having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the 74-year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed.  In 1790, he published his Metamorphosis of Plants. Frederick drew aside the sheet, and I was astonished at the divine magnificence of the limbs. Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Mozart, Beethoven (who idolised Goethe), Schubert, Berlioz and Wolf. trans. ("Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom?"). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.  At the time of the French Revolution, he thought the enthusiasm of the students and professors to be a perversion of their energy and remained skeptical of the ability of the masses to govern. Goethe, now in his seventies, was greatly impressed by the child, leading to perhaps the earliest confirmed comparison with Mozart in the following conversation between Goethe and Zelter: "Musical prodigies ... are probably no longer so rare; but what this little man can do in extemporizing and playing at sight borders the miraculous, and I could not have believed it possible at so early an age." Indeed, Werther is often considered to be the "spark" which ignited the movement, and can arguably be called the world's first "best-seller." In 1782, when the chancellor of the Duchy's Exchequer left his office, Goethe agreed to act in his place for two and a half years; this post virtually made him prime minister and the principal representative of the Duchy. In late 1792, Goethe took part in the Battle of Valmy against revolutionary France, assisting Duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach during the failed invasion of France. Buy johann wolfgang von goethe Books at Indigo.ca.  Nietzsche wrote, "Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and Montaigne, Goethe and Spinoza, Plato and Rousseau, Pascal and Schopenhauer. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. She was emotionally distraught at the time, but they were eventually reconciled..  Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would later reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit. The fact that Werther ends with the protagonist's suicide and funeral—a funeral which "no clergyman attended"—made the book deeply controversial upon its (anonymous) publication, for on the face of it, it appeared to condone and glorify suicide. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace.[b]. Goethe noted in his diary: "Fires, rapine, a frightful night... Preservation of the house through steadfastness and luck." He was fascinated by mineralogy, and the mineral goethite (iron oxide) is named after him. Return to Weimar and the French Revolution (1788–94), https://www.britannica.com/biography/Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe, Poetry Foundation - Biography of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The University of Adelaide - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, AllMusic - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Academy of American Poets - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theatre Database - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). " On another occasion he wrote: "I like boys a lot, but the girls are even nicer. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. Love Truth Money. The Frankfurt in which he was born and in which his social attitudes were formed was, as it is now, a wealthy commercial and financial centre, but it was also virtually a self-governing republic, a city-state within the Holy Roman Empire. The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was completed in stages. Share with your friends.  Goethe always spoke of Napoleon with the greatest respect, confessing that "nothing higher and more pleasing could have happened to me in all my life" than to have met Napoleon in person. Martin Greenberg is best known for his translations of Goethe and von Kleist. In 1774 he wrote the book which would bring him worldwide fame, The Sorrows of Young Werther. Of a possible plan in 1769 to dramatize the story of the man who sold his soul to the Devil in exchange for earthly fulfillment, perhaps including his ultimate redemption, no firm evidence survives.  She praised Goethe as possessing "the chief characteristics of the German genius" and uniting "all that distinguishes the German mind. For instance, in Faust, the first use of Faust's power after signing a contract with the devil is to seduce a teenage girl. His written account of these events can be found within his Complete Works. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not..  The medievalism of the Heidelberg Romantics was also repellent to Goethe's eighteenth-century ideal of a supra-national culture.. After growing up in a privileged upper middle class family, he studied law in Leipzig from 1765 to 1768, although he was more interested in literature. , The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were Götz von Berlichingen (1773), a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) (1774), which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the Sturm und Drang period which marked the early phase of Romanticism. In it, he contentiously characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of light and darkness through the mediation of a turbid medium. Karl Robert Mandelkow, Bodo Morawe: Goethes Briefe. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Die große Hörbuch Box (Märchen, Novelle, Reineke Fuchs, Die Wahlverwandschaften, Faust, Gedichte) I dolori del giovane Werther. " The two discussed politics, the writings of Voltaire, and Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther, which Napoleon had read seven times and ranked among his favorites. Goethe thus went to live in Weimar, where he remained for the rest of his life and where, over the course of many years, he held a succession of offices, becoming the Duke's friend and chief adviser. Multiple choice general knowledge quiz questions.  Goethe came away from the meeting deeply impressed with Napoleon's enlightened intellect and his efforts to build an alternative to the corrupt old regime. In a couple of weeks the biography was reworked into a colourful drama. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text.